Cumulative university licensing revenues
I find the sums here extraordinary – according to “Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism“, from 2000 to 2004, the University of California earned $575 million from licensing their patents:
The total for all USA and Canadian research institutions was $6,348 million.
No wonder governments around the world are racing to create their own version of the Bayh-Dole Act, which gives universities the right to commercialize their inventions even though the original research funding came from the government. Their own universities cannot compete against US ones without this extra revenue source. And the revenue provides scientists with incentives to bring their research to market.